Roadmap to Reducing 大坝安全Risks

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问题和挑战

行动的号召. What Can We Do to Improve Dam Safety?


 

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大坝是国家基础设施的重要组成部分,与桥梁同等重要, 道路, 机场, and other major elements of the infrastructure. 水坝为美国所有地区的人们提供了维持生命的资源.  They can serve several functions at once, including water supply for domestic, 农业, 工业, and community use; flood control; recreation; and clean, renewable energy through hydropower. 然而,成千上万的美国大坝有可能失败,并带来悲剧性的后果. MGM集团美高梅登陆国家的大坝正在老化和恶化,而下游人口却在增加. This situation demands greater attention to and investment in measures that reduce risks to public safety and economic assets.

 

Dams in the U.S.

Throughout the 历史 of the humankind, people have built dams to maximize use of this vital resource. 建造水坝是为了关键事实-当前状态.png 为美国所有地区的人们提供维持生命的资源. The 20th Century saw the most prolific building of dams in the U.S. 随之而来的是大坝的溃坝. 在那个世纪早期, as many dams failed due to lack of proper engineering and 维护, it was recognized that some form of regulation was needed. One of the earliest state programs was enacted in California in the 1920s. 联邦机构, 比如美国农业部, 水土保持服务, the 美国陆军工程兵团 and the Department of Interior, 围垦局在20世纪早期建造了许多水坝,并在此期间建立了建筑和安全标准. Slowly, other states began regulatory programs. 但是,直到20世纪70年代发生了一连串严重的大坝溃坝事件,各州和联邦政府才意识到这一点.

 

The Increasing Hazard: Summary of US Dam Data

Dams are innately hazardous structures. Failure or mis-operation can result in the release of the reservoir contents - this includes water, 我浪费, or 农业 refuse - causing negative impacts upstream or downstream or at locations remote from the dam. Negative impacts of primary concern are the loss of human life, economic loss including property damage, lifeline disruption and environmental damage.

HHPD增加.pngSome dams are considered to have a greater hazard potential than others. 截至2019年,美国约有15600座高风险潜在大坝. “高危险潜力”是大多数州大坝安全项目和联邦机构使用的术语,它是一个三管齐下的分类系统的一部分,用来确定大坝溃坝对下游地区的危险程度.

While the definition varies from place to place, it generally means if failure of a high-hazard dam occurs, there probably will be loss of life. 必须强调的是,这一决定并不意味着这些水坝需要维修——这些水坝可能状况良好,也可能状况不佳.  高危险性只是反映了大坝一旦发生故障,可能会对下游造成损害.

每个州都有潜在的高危险大坝,影响着下游成千上万人的生活. 当前的问题和争论是关于这些高危险的建筑数量的增加,这并不是因为正在建造更多的高危险的大坝, but that more development is occurring downstream. Dam safety regulators generally have no control over local zoning issues or developers' property rights, 因此,随着“危险蔓延”趋势的持续,这个问题继续让监管机构感到担忧.

 

The Owners’ Responsibility 

Dams are owned and 操作d by many different types of owners. Sometimes they only serve the interest of the owner—for instance in the case of a neighborhood association that wants its 大坝的所有权.pnghomes built around a lake—and sometimes they serve the interest of communities—for instance in the case of a water supply utility.  

Private ownership makes dams a unique part of the national infrastructure. While most infrastructure facilities (道路, 桥梁, sewer systems, etc.)是由公共实体所有的,而美国的大多数水坝是私人所有的. 

A dam owner is solely responsible for the safety and liability of the dam and for financing its upkeep, 升级, 和修复.

 

缺乏充分的监督:美国现行监管计划摘要

It is important that there is regulatory oversight to reduce the risk of dam failure or incidents. The safety of the majority of dams in the U.S. 是由州机构或联邦机构管理,还是像许多联邦政府拥有的大坝一样,由自治管理,如美国陆军工程兵团或美国填海造地局. 

State dam safety programs have primary regulatory responsibility for almost 75% of the nation’s dams. State dam safety programs oversee classification, 允许, 水坝检查, 提供实施, oversee remediation of deficient dams, and work with local officials and dam owners on emergency preparedness. 

尽管大多数州都有立法权力来实施全面的大坝安全计划, many are lacking in specific areas. Some states are unable, by specific language in their law, to绝大多数.png 管理某些类型的大坝,让这些结构落在管理裂缝之间. Other states have limited ability to enforce the law. 在一些州, 如果大坝所有者不按照国家要求进行安全维修,官员们就没有追索权.

许多州在执行法律条文方面资源不足. 2019财年,各州大坝安全预算从0美元(阿拉巴马州)到2000万美元(加州)不等。. But the average annual state dam safety budget is about $1.1500万年. The average number of regulated dams per state is about 1700. The average number of dam inspectors per state is about nine. This means that each dam inspector is responsible for overseeing the safety of about 190 existing dams, plus the additional responsibilities of overseeing new construction.

底线, many state programs lack adequate budgets, staff and authority to carry out these duties and to ensure public safety. Although things have improved in the last 20 years, 有一个正在进行的, 几乎每个州都需要为这些项目注入更多的资源.

 

Risk of Failure: Failures and Incident Stats

Dam failures not only risk public safety, they also can cost our economy millions of dollars in damages. Failure is not just limited to damage to the dam itself. It can result in the impairment of many other infrastructure systems, 如道路, 桥梁, 和水系统. 当大坝倒塌时, 必须将资源用于预防和处理公共卫生风险以及由此产生的结构性后果.

大坝失败的数据.pngHundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout U.S. 历史. These failures have caused immense property and environmental damages and have taken thousands of lives. 随着美国水坝老化和人口增长,致命水坝溃坝的可能性也在增加.

Although the majority of dams in the U.S. 有负责任的业主和妥善的维护,每年仍有许多大坝失败. From January 2010 to April 2020, 各州报告了270座大坝溃坝和581起“事件”——在这些事件中,如果没有干预或情况没有好转,大坝就可能溃坝. Dam and downstream 修复 costs resulting from failures in 23 states reporting in one recent year totaled $54.300万年.

历史上,大坝的失败有一些缺陷,这导致了失败. 目前,我国缺高危险源水坝2330余座. There are deficient dams in almost every state. The risk of failure only increases as dams across the nation age. Currently, the average age of dams in the United States is 57 years. 到2025年,73%的大坝 全国水坝清单 with a completed date listed will be over 50 years old. Without the needed 升级s and rehabilitation, 这些大坝不能被期望承受目前的洪水和地震预测.

 

The Need for Rehabilitation and Financing for These Upgrades

Lack of funding for dam 升级s is a serious national problem, especially within the private sector. 操作, 维护, 大坝的修复费用从几千到数百万不等, and responsibility for these expenses lies with owners, many of whom cannot afford these costs. Although some states offer loan programs, for the most part funding assistance through either government or private sources is minimal at best.

Dams must be maintained to keep them safe. Occasional 升级 or rehabilitation is necessary due to deterioration, 不断变化的技术标准, 改进的技术, better understanding of the area's precipitation conditions, and changes in downstream populations or land use. 大坝的危险等级被改变以反映潜在危险的增加, the dam may need to be 升级d to meet an increased need for safety. The age of a dam is not necessarily a direct indicator of its condition. 年龄是一个间接的指标,因为老水坝的建造没有达到今天的标准. Some older dams are considered in poor condition for this reason alone, while others may have been inadequately maintained as well.

2021年,美国土木工程师协会更新了其基础设施成绩单. In this report, dams were given a 'D.’ This is mostly due to the number of deficient high-hazard dams and the lack of funding the sector currently receives. The full report is available here.

成千上万的大坝仍然需要修复,以达到当前的设计和安全标准. 这些结构不仅老化了,而且由于下游开发的增加和预测洪水的科学知识的进步,其标准也更加严格, 地震, 和大坝失败. The average age of our nation’s dams is 56 years. 到2025年,美国10座水坝中有7座将超过50年. Fifty years ago, dams were built with the best engineering and construction standards of the time. 然而, as the scientific and engineering data have improved, 许多大坝预计无法安全地承受目前有关极端风暴的预测, 大洪水和地震. 除了, 由于下游缺乏开发,许多大坝最初采用的设计标准不那么严格.

MGM集团美高梅登陆 estimates that the total cost to rehabilitate the nation’s non-federal dams exceeds $65 billion. To rehabilitate just those dams categorized as most critical, 或高火险潜在, 将花费超过200亿美元, a cost that continues to rise as 维护, 修复, and rehabilitation are delayed. Many dam owners, especially private dam owners, find it difficult to finance rehabilitation projects.

需要投资来修复有缺陷的大坝,并提高监督大坝安全项目的政策和监管项目的有效性. Upgrade or rehabilitation is necessary due to deterioration, 不断变化的技术标准, 和改进技术, as well as better understanding of the area's precipitation conditions, increases in downstream populations, 改变土地使用. 大坝的危险等级被改变以反映潜在危险的增加, the dam may need to be 升级d to meet an increased need for safety. Many dam owners, especially private dam owners, find it difficult to finance rehabilitation projects.

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Read MGM集团美高梅登陆's Cost of Rehabilitating Our Nation's Dams Report

 

Emergency Preparedness

学术用途英语.pngEmergency planning and preparedness procedures must be in place in the event of an incident or failure. Until the last 10 plus years, a large percentage of dams in the U.S. did not have Emergency Action Plans or exercising procedures in place. Emergency Action Plans (学术用途英语s) play a big role in keeping people and property safe in the event of a dam breach or failure.  几个州在提高使用eap的大坝比例方面取得了显著进展. 

18%.pngEmergency preparedness is improving, with the percentage of state-regulated high-hazard potential dams with an Emergency Action Plan (学术用途英语) increasing. 目标是让所有高风险的潜在水坝都有学术用途英语,以便大坝所有者和地方当局为水坝突然溃坝和随之而来的下游后果做好准备.

 

Outdated or Generalized Precipitation Data

长期以来,国家极端降水(可能最大降水[PMP])标准一直被用于大坝和核电设施等高风险基础设施的管理和设计. Those standards are used to bring consistency between Federal Agencies, 国家机构, and the private sector professional design community. Federal leadership is again needed to update these standards. 

美国S National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 美国国家气象局(NWS)在20世纪40年代首次开发了估计可能最大降水(PMP)的方法, using historic data available at that time, applied them across the US through hydro and hydrometeorological studies and reports between 1961 and 1999. State dam safety programs have developed statutes, rules and guidance documents for design of safe facilities that are typically based on these federally sanctioned NWS studies. 
自现有标准公布以来,已有数十年的风暴事件数据(计算标准的基础)被记录下来. 这些报告, 然而, have never been officially updated to include new methods, 技术, or decades of more recent storm data libraries. 

These outdated reports continue to be used by many. 一些州的大坝安全项目已经改变了它们的法规,允许使用联邦政府以外的实体提供的可用的新方法,而其他机构觉得很难尝试. 相邻州的最低设计标准之间以及联邦和州内部的设计/性能期望之间的不一致性正在增加. 

最近有报道称,全国目前有近1700座高风险水坝需要修复. 假定这些水坝中有一定比例需要改进溢洪道系统是合理的. 为了确保最高水平的公共安全,需要采用一致和标准化的现代方法来修复高危险性水坝的溢洪道.

 

Lack of Transparency and Communication with the Public

几乎所有上述问题都涉及到有关水坝的公共教育问题. The ordinary citizen is unaware that the beautiful lakes on which they boat, 滑雪, or fish are only there because of manmade dams. 开发商在溃坝洪水泛滥的地区修建大坝,却完全不知道上游大坝一旦溃坝可能造成的潜在破坏. In fact, some developers and zoning officials are completely unaware of dams within their community. Even if citizens understand and are aware of dams, 他们仍然对这些人造建筑的可靠性过于自信. Living in dam-break flood-prone areas is a risk.

Many dam owners do not realize their responsibility and liability toward the downstream public and environment. 充分了解正确的大坝维护和升级技术是美国许多业主面临的一个典型问题.

Some groups put forth the message that dams are bad for the environment and advocate their removal. 这可能会误导公众认为保护MGM集团美高梅登陆的大坝是一项毫无价值的事业. 在某些情况下, dam removal is the best solution, 但在任何情况下,在作出这一决定之前都应考虑其后果.


 

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MGM集团美高梅登陆应当:

Support the improvement of state dam safety programs.

增加合作.

Advance and expand the technical expertise of dam and levee safety practitioners through training and education programs.

Reduce the potential for dam failure by promoting innovative approaches to fund dam rehabilitation.

Reduce the consequences of dam failure by increasing public awareness, planning and preparedness.

倡导法律, policies and government programs that serve to improve the safety of dams and reduce the risk to the public.

Support and strengthen a coordinated effort to improve the safety of levees.

Read More 关于MGM集团美高梅登陆 Mission

Read MGM集团美高梅登陆's Strategic Plan 2017-2021

 

States and Federal Governments Should:

维护并不断审查和改进大坝安全监管法律、政策和项目. (学习和适应).州和地方政府.png

提供足够的资源, staffing and regulatory authorities to State and Federal dam safety programs.

Ensure that adequate data on dams is available to policymakers to facilitate decision-making on funding, and to the general public to promote public awareness.

Ensure that 联邦机构 that own, 操作, 或规范大坝应符合联邦大坝安全指南的标准.

确保管理大坝的国家机构努力满足《MGM美高梅官网登录》中详细介绍的全国接受的指导意见.

教育大坝业主,鼓励业主使用经验丰富的专业工程师.

Implement innovative grant or loan programs to shore up deficient dams, similar to the Superfund Program administered by the EPA.

Effectively implement existing federal grant and loan programs including:

  • the High-Hazard Potential Dam Rehabilitation Program, 这是一个由联邦应急管理局国家大坝安全计划管理的国家拨款项目
  • the Water Infrastructure Financing Program (CWIFP), 由美国陆军工程兵团管理的一项国家计划,为大坝所有者提供低息贷款,以弥补修复资金缺口
  • the Small Watershed Dam Rehabilitation Program, administered by the 自然资源 保护 Service, 为全美流域地区的水坝修复提供拨款

建立国家管理的大坝修复低息贷款和赠款项目,或全额资助各州帐面上的项目.

Improve Downstream Hazard Classification (DHC) practices to ensure the safety of people downstream. 

与大坝所有者合作,为每一个高风险的潜在大坝制定应急行动计划. Use a nationally accepted model/guide. Integrate exercising into the planning process.

鼓励改进地方一级的土地利用规划,以便在未来的规划中更准确地了解和考虑大坝对当地地区的影响.

Implement better public education about high-hazard potential dams, 具体确保公众对大坝状况分级制度有更好的了解.

Update hydrometeorological models and tools to account for what is known about climate change and current data. 

Work toward better communications to reduce the consequences from failure. Share inundation maps and emergency response plans for high hazard potential and significant hazard potential dams.

鼓励监管机构(联邦和州)之间更好的协调 regarding regulatory communication.

 

The National Dam Safety Program Should:

 Facilitate and support the strengthening of State dam safety programs.

 增加和改善大坝安全工程师(包括监管者)的培训计划, 工程咨询顾问, 业主与运营商). 使用一个国家认可的大坝工程和风险管理项目的研究. 

 Maintain nationally accepted guidelines on dam safety program management, dam engineering and dam risk management technical topics. 这些国家指南应该由联邦应急管理局维护和定期更新, 国家大坝安全规划.

 Effectively implement the National High-Hazard Potential Dam Rehabilitation Program to cost-share safety 升级s to non-federal, high-hazard potential dams across all States. 

 实施一项全国性的公众意识运动,教育个人了解他们所在地区的水坝位置和状况,提高“水坝意识”.” 

 Establish a national investigation program, which would be activated after dam failures or incidents, to provide important lessons to be learned from those failures.

 Promote a coordinated strategy within the dam safety community to study, archive and disseminate lessons to be learned from failures and incidents.

 鼓励监管机构(联邦和州)之间更好的协调.

 

美国.S. 国会应该:

 为联邦应急管理局(FEMA)的国家大坝安全项目(国家大坝安全规划)和中国钢铁工业协会(CISA)的大坝部门专门机构(Dams Sector Specific Agency)提供资金和支持,以加强国家对大坝安全的协调和支持.

 Support and provide increased appropriations for all federal dam rehabilitation loan and grant programs.

 审查高危水坝修复计划的实施情况, 由联邦应急管理局, 为了确保这一常识, 联邦应急管理局正在使用公平有效的策略来执行这个项目.

 Provide appropriations to support implementation of the 美国陆军工程兵团’ Water Infrastructure Financing Program, which provides low-interest loans for dam rehabilitation.

 Provide adequate resources to all 联邦机构 that own, regulate or provide technical or research support for dams.

 

Dam Owners应该

 Maintain and 操作 dams to assure that the they do not fail.  与州当地官员合作,减轻失败和事故的后果.

 Inform local officials of risks associated with dams.

 Develop emergency action plans (学术用途英语) for every high-hazard potential dam. Use a nationally accepted model/guide. Integrate exercising into the planning process.

 作为学术用途英语开发过程的一部分,是否创建了一个大坝溃坝淹没图. Share plans and maps with local planners and first responders.

 Work with the state or federal regulator to comply with safety standards.

 聘请经验丰富的专业工程师监督大坝安全工程问题.

 Attend educational programs when offered by organizations and agencies.

 

Emergency and Floodplain Managers Should:

 开放与州和联邦大坝安全机构的沟通渠道,以改善大坝故障或事故的规划和准备工作.

 Participate in educational programs to become more aware of dams and how they intersect with emergency and floodplain management.

 鼓励改进地方一级的土地利用规划,以便在未来的规划中更准确地了解和考虑大坝对当地地区的影响.

 

Citizens应该:

不幸的.png Be aware of their surroundings, 他们可能面临的风险, and steps they can take now to protect themselves and their families from floods should a dam fail or release flood waters. 

 Have a plan in place if an evacuation becomes necessary. Listen to first responders and emergency managers and follow directions given in the event of a dam incident or failure.

 

View Living Near Dams: Know Your Risks

View Living Near Dams: Extreme Rainfall Events

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